Thursday, December 5, 2019
Deviance Is Socially Defined Essay What does it mean to say, deviance is socially defined?Deviance is defined as, The recognized violation of cultural norms. Deviance is an act of rebellion against set of rules, and expected behavior established by a certain society. Deviance is defined in many different ways. It is depended on the norms of the society, and region. Individuals become deviant when people label their actions as deviance. It depends on how that certain society defines deviance on individuals. The establishment of rules, and breaking rules in society is determined by strong social powers. This event leads to social inequality in society. The Saints and the roughnecks, are an example to labeling individuals as deviants, and it shows how social power causes inequality. Deviance appears in all likes of society. Deviance has many meanings to unconformity on a cultural norm. It depends on that the state of society, and its region. Prostitution is a profession that has existed since the beginning of society. Prostitution is viewed as a sleazy way of making money. The United States outlaws this profession, because it degrades females. Yet it is legal, and accepted in the city of Las Vegas, Nevada. Residents in Nevada view prostitution, as any other job. Individuals become deviants when society decides to call the acts deviance. It is a labeling process put on the person. An example of deviant behavior would be the teen youth wearing baggy attire. Baggy attire is related to gangs, which in turn makes a person view teens that wear baggy attire to be a troublemaker. As a result it puts a stigma on the teen, which causes the teen to accept it, and then becomes a deviant individual. Rules are created and broken by people who have strong social powers, and ties. Dan White an ideal view of the American dream, got away with murder. Dan White had strong social ties with his community and supporters. He murdered Harvey Milk, who is a homosexual, and the Mayor. Harvey Milk had many opposing social forces against him. Dan White broke many rules for the murders. Dan is viewed as a hero to the anti-gay community. It was his social ties, and power that gave him his lenient verdict. The Saints and the Roughnecks, presents how society labels certain individuals as deviants because of their social class status. The Saints were boys who came from an upper social class setting. The social conflict paradigm says, Upper class individuals tend to abstain from committing deviant acts. The Roughnecks came from a lower class, therefore giving them a bad impression. Both groups broke many rules, and were juvenile delinquents. The saints were viewed as good boys, while the Roughnecks were view as bad boys. The difference was the social class setting. The wealthier group had more power, and respect giving them a better image. Society views groups in poverty as deviants-to-be. Deviance has many meanings. It depends on the culture, and the region where it is located. Different cultures have many different views of deviance. There is no correct, or ideal view of deviance in a society. Everyone in society has committed a deviant behavior. To be labeled as a deviant, society must define what is right and wrong. Placing stigmas on individuals will make the person accept the negative feedback, which in turn will cause them to become a deviant. People who have strong social ties, and support will control society. These people can make and break laws, without worrying about consequences. Social power involves a strong social class status. The Saints and the Roughnecks, are two groups which both committed deviant acts. One group is viewed better because of their social status. The Rich will always be viewed as more respected and valiant, then a group in poverty. Inequality is a result of deviance in society. This issue prompts society to become more alert of the pr oblem, which causes social change.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Acids&Bases What substances turned into Acids? & What substances turned into Bases? Hypothesis: Procedure: Pour about three milliliters of your sample in each of three test tubes. Pour the same amount on a watch glass. In the first test tube put in two drops of methyl orange and record the color. In the second test tube, put in two drops of bromothymol blue and record the color. In the third test tube, add two drops of phenothalein and record the color. Using the watch glass sample, touch the tips of a red and a blue litmus paper and record the colors. Then touch the tip of a piece of pH Paper and record the color and match the color to the chart and record the pH. Methyl O Bromothymol B Phenothalein R Litmus B Litmus pH Paper Color Congo R AA- orange/red yellow clear red red pink(1) purple OJ- red/orange yellow yellow red pink Orange(4) purple HA- red yellow clear red red red(2) purple Bleach-orange yellow clear red red orange(4) purple Vinegar-red yellow clear red red red(1) purple SH-orange blue red blue blue brown(12) orange Mouth wash-red yellow/green sky blue red red red(1) purple Lemon J-red yellow clear red red red(2) purple Windex-Orange blue clear red blue orange(6) red Plax-orange blue lilac red red orange(6) peach PickleJ-red yellow clear red red red(4) brown Di gel- yellow blue lilac blue blue yellow(7) red Conclusion: Acids are chemical compounds made up of nonmetallic elements or polyotomic ions combined with hydrogen. They react with metals to release hydrogen and have a pH less than 7. That is why litmus paper turns red. So anything that turned red in my chart was an acid. Bases are compounds made up of metallic elements or polyotomic ions combined with hydroxyl radicals. They are formed when some metals react with water and have a pH above 7. They turn litmus paper blue. So anything on my chart that is blue under litmus is Bases. So from my results it was very easy to clarify which substance was an acid and which one was a base. Science Essays
Sunday, November 24, 2019
The Best AP World History Notes to Study With SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips AP World History is a fascinating survey of the evolution of human civilization from the beginning of recorded history to the present. Because it spans thousands of years and covers the rise and fall of countless empires and nations across the globe, it might seem like an overwhelming amount of information to remember for one test. This article will help you organize your studying more easily by providing links to online AP World History notes and advice on how to use those notesto structure and execute a successful study plan. How to Use These AP World History Notes The notes in this article will help you review all the information you need to know for the AP World History exam.If youÃ¢â¬â¢re missing any notes from class or are just looking for a more organized run-through of the curriculum, you can use them as a reference. During your first semester of AP World History, study the content in the notes that your class has already covered.IÃ¢â¬â¢d recommend conducting a holistic review of everything youÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned so far about once a month so that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t start to forget information from the beginning of the course. In the second semester, after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve made it through most of the course, you should use these notes in conjunction with practice tests. Taking (realistically timed) practice tests will help to verify that youÃ¢â¬â¢ve absorbed the information.After eachtest, assess your mistakes, and take note of where you came up short.Then, focus your studying on the notes that are most relevant to your weak content areas.Once you feel more confident, take and score another practice test to see if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve improved on your last score. You can repeat this process until youÃ¢â¬â¢re satisfied with your scores! Background: AP World History Themes The content for AP World History is divided into five themes that can be traced through six different historical eras.The five themes that will show up throughout the course and exam include: Theme 1: Interaction Between Humans and the Environment Theme 2: Development and Interaction of Cultures Theme 3: State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict Theme 4: Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems Theme 5: Development and Transformation of Social Structures You should examine all content through the lens of these themes. AP World History is mostly about identifying large trends that occur over long periods of time.In the next section, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go through the six historical eras designated by the curriculum, each accompanied with links to online notes. Much like these gentlemen, AP World History is very trendy. Except AP World History would never wear that godawful scarf. AP World History Notes These notes are organized by the six major historical periods laid out in the curriculum.Most of the notes are derived from CourseNotes, which has detailed outlines that go over every chapter from the fourth edition of the textbook World Civilizations: The Global Experience. The only notes that donÃ¢â¬â¢t come from CourseNotes are the chapter notes for Period 1. I took them from theAPstudynotessite because it contains more detailed information on early human history.They come from a different textbook called Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past, 3rd Edition.IÃ¢â¬â¢ve also included links to notes that cover broader thematic concepts within each period, which IÃ¢â¬â¢ve labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"overall notes" at the beginning of each of these sections. The biggest issue with all of these notes is that it can be hard to pick out key concepts. There are no bolded terms or summaries at the ends of the outlines. If you need a more engaging format to hold your attention, I'd recommend buying a review book instead or printing out the notes so you can highlight important points. Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations (Up to 600 BCE) Overall Notes for Periods 1 and 2 Textbook Chapter Notes: PreHistory Early Southwest Asian Societies and Indo-European Migrations Early African Societies and Bantu Migrations Early South Asian Societies Early East Asian Societies Early Societies in the Americas and Oceania Period 2: Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (600 BCE - 600 CE) Textbook Chapter Notes: Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean (Greece and Rome) Classical Civilization in China Classical Civilization in India Development and Decline in the Classical Period (Pre-500 CE) Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 CE - 1450) Overall Notes for Period 3 Textbook Chapter Notes: The Rise and Spread of Islam Abbasid Decline and Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia African Civilizations and Islamic Influence Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe American Civilizations Pre-European Contact Chinese Reunification and Renaissance Spread of Chinese Civilization in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam Mongolian Civilization and the Last Nomadic Challenges The Rise of the West and the Changing World Balance Period 4: Global Interactions (1450 - 1750) Overall Notes for Period 4 Textbook Chapter Notes: Growth of the World Economy Transformation of Europe The Rise of Russia Early Latin America African Civilizations and the Atlantic Slave Trade Muslim Empires Developments in Asia Period 5: Industrialization and Global Integration (1750 - 1900) Overall Notes for Period 5 Textbook Chapter Notes: Emergence of an Industrial Society in the West Industrialization and Imperialism Consolidation of Latin America Civilizations in Crisis: Ottoman Empire, Islamic Heartlands, and Qing China Russia and Japan: Industrialization Outside the West Period 6: Accelerating Global Change and Realignments (1900 - Present) Overall Notes for Period 6 Textbook Chapter Notes World War I and the Crisis of European Global Order Challenges to European Dominance in the 1920s Great Depression and Authoritarian Response World War II and the End of the European Global Order Western Society and Eastern Europe During the Cold War Latin American Upheavals African, Middle Eastern, and Asian Independence Movements and Revolutions Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim Globalization at the Turn of the 21st Century You can also check out these helpful mini-outlines on each world region from CourseNotes.They give you the status of each region at different periods in history in the areas of politics, economics, social class/gender, scientific advances, art and culture, empire, and religion.There are outlines for Africa, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, South Asia, the US, and Western Europe. Ah, the earth is such a beautiful and historic place! AP World History Study Tips Here are a few study tips that will help you prepare strategically for the exam. In addition to these tidbits of advice, you can check out this article witha longer list of the best study tips for this class. #1: We All Scream for Historical Themes IÃ¢â¬â¢m sure youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been screaming with delight throughout your entire reading of this article because the themes are so thrilling.Seriously, though, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re super important for doing well on the final exam.Knowledge of specific facts about different empires and regions throughout history will be of little use on the AP test if you canÃ¢â¬â¢t weave that information together to construct a larger narrative. As you look through notes, think carefully about how everything connects back to the five major themes of the course. For example, if you're reading about the rise and spread of Islam in the 7th century, you should think about how this can be viewed in the context of Development and Interaction of Cultures. How did the spread of Islam impact cultural and political landscapes in the Middle East? What were its long-term effects on the region and why?If you get into this mode of thinking early, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll have an easier time writing high-quality essays on the final exam. #2: Practice Outlining Essays (Especially the DBQ) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s critical to write well-organized, coherent essays on the AP test, but statistics indicate that a large majority of students struggle with this aspect of the exam.In 2015, the average score on the DBQ was just 3 out of 9 points - ouch.That means most students had trouble incorporating all the documents into their argument in a way that flowed logically.I guarantee that you can earn much more than 3 points on the DBQ and other essay questions if you consistently practice writing outlines that follow the directions and stay focused on the main topic. Try to becomea pro at planning out your ideas by the time the exam rolls around. #3: Know Your Chronology You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to memorize a ton of exact dates, but you do need to be aware of the basic order in which major events happened in each region of the world.If someone tells you the name of an empire or dynasty, you should know which centuries it was active and what caused its rise and fall.Pay attention to the overall developments that occurred in world history during each period designated by the course.What types of contact were made between different regions? Where were trading networks established? What were the dominant powers? Multiple-choice and essay questions will ask you to focus on certain time periods and regions, so you should know the gist of what was going on at any given juncture. #4: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Sweat the Small Stuff ItÃ¢â¬â¢s good to know that a certain (hypothetical) emperor was attempting to unify culturally disparate regions through a shared national identity in the 5th century.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not necessary to know the names of every single region in the empire and the exact dates when they were conquered. You're not expected to have aphotographic memory. AP World History is mostlyabout broad themes. You should still includea few specific details in your essays to back up your main points, but that's not nearly as important as showing a deep understanding of the progression of human history on a larger scale. Don't let yourself get to this point. In terms of sweating the small stuff, I mean. You can do crunches while you study if you want. Maybe you can create your own smash hit training program that helps people exercise and study for AP tests at the same time, and you'll be so rich you won't even have to go to college. You're welcome. Conclusion: How to Study With AP World History Notes A well-organized set of notes can help to ground your studying for AP World History. With so much content to cover, it's best to selectively revisit different portions of the course based on where you find the largest gaps in your knowledge. You can decide what you need to study based on which content areas cause you the most trouble on practice tests. Tips to keep in mind while studying the notes for this course include: Tip #1: Connect Facts Back to the Themes Tip #2: Practice Writing Essay Outlines Tip #3: Know the Basic Chronology of Events Tip #4: Don't Worry Too Much About Small Details If you meticulously comb through your mistakes and practice your essay writing skills regularly, you're on the right track to a great AP score! What's Next? What's a document-based question? How do you write a good response? Read this article to learn more about the most challenging question on the AP World History test! If you're taking AP World History during your freshman or sophomore year, check out this article for some advice on which history classes you should take for the rest of your time in high school. How many AP classes should you take over the course of your time in high school? This article will help you figure out how many AP classes you should take based on your goals and the course offerings at your school. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The connection between Obama speech, human right, and right of the child - Essay Example and Islamic countries. The speech made by Obama is interlaced with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This paper will examine the three points, which the president, President Obama, and many other pundits had also discussed before, in relation to the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights mandate and the Rights of the Child resolution. These three points will be depicted in each paragraph, with highlights linking the former to the mainstream of Human Rights and the Rights of the Child mandated by the state. The last paragraph will denote the conclusive delineation of the researcher regarding these three narrow issues. The First Connection is Violence, Murder, and the War. In President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, he mentions the violent actions done by Islamic activists to other civilians as a form of a human rights violation. He cited the 9/11 event as an example of violence shown by Islamic activists to people, which had left a lo t of lifeless Americans; the living, fearful, and distressed (Ã¢â¬Å"Remarks by the PresidentÃ¢â¬ 1). President Obama also highlighted in his speech the killings of children, as a result of wars, initiated by Islamic political activists like Al Qaeda. He recalled the time wherein many innocent children were killed during the 9/11 event as a result of a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s hunger for revenge and power. Not only that they killed other races, but they also killed their own kind, as well (Ã¢â¬Å"Remarks by the PresidentÃ¢â¬ 4). Furthermore, the latter, as part of President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, is an example wherein violation to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights takes place. It states that every person has Ã¢â¬Å"the right to live and to feel securedÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Universal DeclarationÃ¢â¬ 2). Since their sense of security is endangered, and their right to live a peaceful life is assaulted, a human right violation will take place. This scenario is also a violation of Artic le 19 paragraph 1 found in the Rights of a Child promulgation wherein it states that a child should be protected from physical violence and injuries (Ã¢â¬Å"ConventionÃ¢â¬ 5). It is the duty of the State Parties, involved in the convention, to make sure that children are protected from violence and other forms of danger that affect their safety and well being as a person (5). The Second Connection is Education. The second connection, which can be can be found in President ObamaÃ¢â¬â¢s speech, is the common desire of the people in the U.S. to achieve a good education (Ã¢â¬Å"Remarks by the PresidentÃ¢â¬ 3). The right to have an education is in conformance with Article 26 in which education is a right for everyone to possess. With this mandate, education must be accessible and free for all people regardless of what race and status they have in life. Education should be a molding instrument to shape the personality and dignity of a person. It should also promote peace among nat ions through presenting a curriculum that brings understanding to the culture of other nations (Ã¢â¬Å"Universal DeclarationÃ¢â¬ 6). This aspiration can also be found in the Rights of a Child Article 28, which states that education must be free and available to children (Ã¢â¬Å"ConventionÃ¢â¬ 8). Just like what is mandated under Human Rights, elementary education must be provided to all children regardless of life status. Furthermore, it is the aim of the State Parties to eradicate illiteracy to all nations (8). With this on hand, the state
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Choose one fromTOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT or NEW PRODUCT OR NEW SERVICE INTRODUCTION (NPI) orLEAN MANAGEMENT - Essay Example The engine and the accessories are all out-sourced from about 80 suppliers. The engine supplier is located about 100 Km away but the accessory suppliers are scattered all over the country There is a paint shop but the company uses a contractor to do the jobs with his own labour. 2. There is either a shortage or excess of raw materials at Production Assembly Line as the company works on basis of Material Requirement Planning (MRP) and is dependant on supplier offering delivery dates 3. Movement within the plant is slow and not smooth. Apart from the main conveyor Belt there are few conveyor belts and component feeding is mostly manual. There are only 3 forklift trucks, one for each Machine shop. As a result of above there are Erratic Dispatches. The dealers complain of missing delivery dates for their customers. Despite having fixed quotas for 50 dealerships the company is unable to forecast its requirements. This shows complete ignorance of how to use data and information for production planning. There is no consistency in Production plan. It is made weekly as per demand pressure without considering availability of capacity or raw materials. The Material Requirement Planning (MRP) does not take into consideration the available capacity and schedules resulting in either excess raw materials or shortage of raw materials at production head and elsewhere. Resources are not adequately available for Production resulting in delays within the operation Many movements within same section and between sections are manual as there is a shortage fork-lift trucks. No attention has been paid to installation of conveyers within sections and adding more forklift trucks between sections. Despite the equipment being relatively new breakdowns occur due to non existence of Preventive Maintenance Plans and non availability of spares in time Supply chain is not synchronized with Production hence raw material arrival does not match Production requirements. The
Monday, November 18, 2019
Analysis NASA Challenger Case - Essay Example Administrators owe their loyalty to the employees, students, school districts and the parents. Employees rely on the information given to them by the administrators. In addition, parents have trusted the administrators to protect their children. Moreover, school districts have mandated the administrators to achieve laid down goals and objectives. Finally, students expect administrators to ensure their safety and quality service delivery to them. In order for the administration to protect their relationship with employees, they give this type of recommendation when getting rid of their employees. They give an employee a chance of another employment by another institution. In most cases friendship tend to have outdo honesty. Administrators tend to offer half-truths about their employees due to friendship. However, that not ought to be the case. Honesty in the workplace is fundamental, since it ensures that there is trust among the administrators. In addition, honest information makes one to make right decisions. In the GadamÃ¢â¬â¢s case, the administrators said nothing about GadamÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. This may have been due to the friendship that existed between the administrators and Gadam. Moreover, due to the fear of tarnishing the reputation of the institutions by a negative recommendation letter about one of their employee. In the NASA case, the managers are fully responsible for the explosion. Despite their knowledge in engineering and the reasons the engineers gave against the launch, they adamantly gave an okay for the launch of the rocket. In addition, they decided to throw their engineering knowledge to the wind and embrace the management skills. I would have tried to persuade the managers not to launch the rocket, if I was in the position of McDonald or Boisjoly. Moreover, I could have warned the six astronauts and Christa McAuliffe about the danger they were about to get
Friday, November 15, 2019
Psychoanalysis as a Form of Literary Criticism Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological theories that was founded by the Austrian physician Sigmund Freud in his work Interpretation of Dreams (1900). By bringing up models for the human psyche such as tripartite model (considering human mind as being consisted of an Ego, Superego and Id), proposing different stages of human development (including oral, anal and phallic stage) and also mentioning Oedipus , Electra and Castration complexes, which were a great contribution towards Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic criticism . Oedipus Complex: the unresolved desire of a child for sexual gratification through the parent of the opposite sex, especially the desire of a son for his mother. This involves, first, identification with and, later, hatred for the parent of the same sex, who is considered by the child as a rival. Castration Complex: What prevents the male child from continuing to have incestuous desires for his mother is the fear of being castrated by his father as punishment for his desires. This approach then continued by psychologists such as Carl.G.Jung and Jaques Lacan. Lacan tries to analyze the hows and whys of human action. In this regard language has a significant role, psychoanalysis declares that language shapes the individuals emotions and experiences and as Lacan believed Language shapes and ultimately structures our unconscious and conscious minds while also shaping our self-identity. (Bressler, I34) Because psychoanalysis is concerned with the amorphous human stuff, before it is influenced by culture, language and history, its concern lies in the very intersection of pre-history and history. Pre-history is recognized with qualities such as indivisibility, non-integration, plentitude and oneness while history is related through difference, subjectivity and separation. In other words, the main concern of psychoanalysis is the continual tension between differentiation and non-differentiation. As Lacan believed, human beings go through different stages in order to be able to differentiate themselves as a separate entity in order to reach the sense of individuation. These stages are imaginary order, mirror stage and symbolic order. When the infant is in the first phase, the imaginary order, he imagines himself as united with his mother and cannot see the boundaries, but then in the mirror stage he begins to know that he is separated from his mother and the external world; although, this is just an allusion because he cannot move his body or eat whatever he desires. In the third phase, the symbolic order, the baby considers himself as separated and begins to learn language and this is where language gradually molds his identity. Intro John Fords Tis Pity shes a Whore encourages us to identify with its central characters complete identification with the pre-Oedipal, only for that sympathy to turn belatedly to disgust. The play dramatizes an incestuous relationship between Giovanni and his sister Annabella which leads to pregnancy and ends in disaster and death. Set in Parma, Italy, the story takes place against a background of lust, vengeance and greed that serves as a critique of contemporary culture and morality. Giovanni was warned about the seriousness of his sin by the Friar, but as Giovanni describes it is out of his control. After Annabella decides to end her relation and marry her suitor Soranzo, Giovanni falls in distress. Soranzo plans to catch Giovanni and Anabella in the process of love-making so he leads the situation so that they end up in his own bedroom, and have them murdered. Giovanni talks to Anabella and after realizing their impossible situation he kills her and exits and later on enters Soranz os party with Annabellas heart on his sword and after a battle kills Soranzo and dies himself from his wounds. Analysis Giovanni the central protagonist is a pre-Oedipal narcissist, he returns subjectivity to a pre-Oedipal state which literally consumes the other part of a self and makes two completely separate things into one self-same entity. Incest is a case within the pre-Oedipal stage. It breaks the laws of the post-Oedipal sexual and linguistic difference, in this case confusing the names of brother and sister with the name of lover. Giovanni rejects God as the creator of the world and gives himself the right to refashion and restate laws as a result of his pre-Oedipal desire. Giovanni emphasizing on the oneness he believes with his sister which was the womb where the both were born of seeks reunion and conjoining, looking towards his sister as an object, an object of love and devotion which eases the feeling of division within him. Love symbolically castrates Giovanni and the castration leads him to exile from his identity and masculine self, leading him to a state of a pre-genital, pre-linguis tic non-differentiation.ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Giovanni also seeks another kind of unity which is the unity between sign, language and reality and he believes his words are directly from his emotions. Imitating words of poetic lovers; however, this language further separates and alienates him from the object of love which is Annabella for example when he is reading a sonnet for Anabella repeatedly interrupts him, these interruptions indicate Annabellas refusal to see herself in Giovannis inscriptions and results in violence. Unable to cope with losing his Annabella to Soranzo and his refusal of reality he kills and removes Anabellas heart from her body and enters the final scene with the heart on his dagger. Giovannis violent response to the trauma of exile (exile from Anabellas heart, life womb and bed) is to destroy in order to retain everything that is to be separated from him. His pre-Oedipal narcissistic fantasy is based upon the utter eradication or absorption by others leading hi m to create an iconic approach in the final scene obliterating all competing realities. Intro In Ben Jonsons Bartholomew Fair, an ensemble of various London characters attends the yearly fair in Smithfield commemorating the martyrdom of Saint Bartholomew. First performed in 1614, particularly the theme that when social order is turned upside down or absent, predators emerge to construct a new order based on cheating other characters. At the fair, the characters argue, steal, fight, and cheat while consuming roast pig, ale, gingerbread in a swirl of gluttony, profanity, and sex. Three authority figures, Humphrey Wasp, Justice Adam Overdo, and the Puritan Rabbi Zeal-of-the-Land Busy, seek to control other characters, but they cannot control their own appetites. When the three authority figures accede to their own appetites and gorge themselves, the audience and the characters realize that the fair has its own social order. Analysis For the purpose of the psychoanalytic interpretation of Bartholmew Fair, author will be read as Oedipal father/father-figure; audience as fathers wayward children conscripted by the father at the beginning of the play to the principle of solitary, and the fair as the occasional pleasure, sensual release and enjoyments forbidden by the father as audience are expected to keep their distance from the fair, preventing their fall into the pre-Oedipal world of the fair. The Carnival is the pre-modern equivalent of Freuds polymorphously perverse pre-Oedipal child whose bodily drives have not yet been regulated. The bizarre game played by several of the characters of vapours which involves contradicting one another for the sake of contradiction depicts the discharge of undirected bodily energies and the pig-woman Ursula who is the body of the fair psychoanalytical perspectives of the infantile desire towards the mothers body. Quarlous one of the spectators finds Ursula as a swamp that a man can sink within. Based on the Oedipus complex perspective, Ursula is that womb like state which can draw a man back to the non-differentiation state, while the aim of Ursula is to make money out of the fairs visitors, a capitalist simulation of the blissful state of pre-Oedipal indivisibility. Cokes represent an unregulated infant who bothers his guardian because he is attracted to each and every capital object within the fair. Bartholmew Fair is a questioning of e xternal authority and its externally imposed laws of difference and an embrace, which falls under the fantasies of pre-Oedipal state. Conclusion Psychoanalysis plays an important role in literary criticism, the approach to analyze a characters whats and hows of action without an aesthetic concern and to find a reason for their thoughts can be beneficial to the way readers interpret a literary work, and for authors to create distinguished characters based upon their concern. The Oedipus complex and the personality disorders were enlightened throughÃâÃ Giovannis Violence and death in Tis pity shes a Whore, which were a result of the intolerance of separation from his object of love; in addition, Cokes infantile desires in Bartholomew Fair is a shining example of rejecting adult-separateness.